用考网【阅读理解】 编辑：世芳 发布时间：2017-07-07 17:59:33
阅读理解历来都是大学英语四级考试中的重心,也是考生们失分比较多的一个题型,所以大有 得阅读者得天下 这一说。接下来就一起分享学习啦小编为大家整理的英语四级长篇阅读真题练习吧!
Directions: In this section, you are going to read a passage with ten statements attached to it. Each statement contains information given in one of the paragraphs. Identify the paragraph from which the information is derived. You may choose a paragraph more than once. Each paragraph is marked with a letter. Answer the questions by marking the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2.
A Grassroots Remedy
A) Most of us spend our lives seeking the natural world. To this end, we walk the dog, play golf, go fishing, sit in the garden, drink outside rather than inside the pub, have a picnic, live in the suburbs, go to the seaside, buy a weekend place in the country. The most popular leisure activity in Britain is going for a walk. And when joggers (慢跑者) jog, they don't run the streets. Every one of the minstinctively heads to the park or the river. It is my profound belief that not only do we all need nature, but we all seek nature, whether we know we are doing so or not.
B) But despite this, our children are growing up nature-deprived ( 丧失) , I spent my boyhood climbing trees on Stratham Common, south London. These days, children are robbed of these an cientfreedoms, due to problems like crime, traffic, the loss of the open spaces and odd new perceptions about what is best for children, that is to say, things that can be bought, rather than things that can be found.
C) The truth is to be found elsewhere. A study in the U.S. families had moved to better housing and the children were assessed for ADHD -- attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ( 多动症) .Those whose accommodation had more natural views showed an improvement of 19%; those who had the same improvement in material surroundings but no nice view improved just 4%.
D) A study in Sweden indicated that kindergarten children who could play in a natural environment had less illness and greater physical ability than children used only to a normal playground. A U.S. study suggested that when a school gave children access to a natural environment, academic levels were raised across the entire school.
E) Another study found that children play differently in a natural environment. In playgrounds, children create a hierarchy (等级) based on physical abilities, with the tough ones taking the lead. But when a grassy area was planted with bushes, the children got much more into fantasy play, and the social hierarchy was now based on imagination and creativity.
F) Most bullying (持枪凌弱) is found in schools where there is a tarmac (柏油碎石) play ground; the least bullying is in a natural area that the children are encouraged to explore. This reminds mean pleasantly of Sunny hill School in Stratham, with its harsh tarmac, where I used to hang about incomers fantasizing about wildlife. The children are frequently discouraged from involvement with natural spaces, for health and safety reasons, for fear that they might get dirty or that they might cause damage. So, instead, the damage is done to the children themselves: not to their bodies but to their souls.
G) One of the great problems of modem childhood is ADHD, now increasingly and expensively treated with drugs. Yet one study after another indicates that contact with nature gives huge benefits to ADHD children. However, we spend money on drugs rather than on green places.
H) The life of old people is measurably better when they have access to nature. The increasing emphasis for the growing population of old people is in quality rather than quantity of years. And study after study finds that a garden is the single most important thing in finding that quality.
I) In wider and more difficult areas of life, there is evidence to indicate that natural surroundingsim prove all kinds of things. Even problems with crime and aggressive behavior are reduced when there is contact with the natural world. Dr. William Bird, researcher from the Royal Society for the Protection of birds, states in his study, "A natural environment can reduce violent behavior because its restorative process helps reduce anger and impulsive behavior." Wild places need encouraging for this reason, no matter how small their contribution.
J) We tend to look on nature conservation as some kind of favor that human beings are granting to the natural world. The error here is far too deep: not only do humans need nature for themselves, but the very idea that humanity and the natural world are separable things is profoundly damaging. Human beings are a species of mammals (哺乳动物) . For seven million years they lived on the planet as part of nature. Our ancestral selves miss the natural world and long for contact with nonhuman life. Anyone who has patted a dog, stoked a cat, sat under a tree with a pint of beer, given or received a bunch of flowers or chosen to walk through the park on a nice day, understands that. We need the wild world. It is essential to our well-being, our health, our happiness. Without the wild world we are not more but less civilized. Without other living things around us we are less than human.
K) Five Ways to Find Harmony with the Natural World Walk: Break the rhythm of permanently being under a roof. Get off a stop earlier, make a circuit of the park at lunchtime, walk the child to and from school, get a dog, feel yourself moving in moving air, look, listen, absorb.
Sit: Take a moment, every now and then, to be still in an open space. In the garden, anywhere that's not in the office, anywhere out of the house, away from the routine. Sit under a tree, look at water, feel refreshed, ever so slightly renewed.
Drink: The best way to enjoy the natural world is by oneself; the second best way is in company. Take a drink outside with a good person, a good gathering: talk with the sun and the wind with bird-song for background.
Learn: Expand your boundaries. Leam five species of bird, five butterflies, five trees, five bird songs. That way, you see and hear more: and your mind responds gratefully to the greater amount of wildness in your life.
Travel: The places you always wanted to visit: by the seaside, in the country, in the hills. Take a week-end break, a day-trip, get out these and do it: for the scenery, for the way through the woods, for the birds, for the bees. Go somewhere special and bring specialness home. It lasts forever, after all.
46. The study in Sweden shows that more access to nature makes children less likely to fall ill.
47. The author's profound belief is that people instinctively seek nature in different ways.
48. It can be very helpful to provide more green spaces for children with ADHD.
49. Elderly people will enjoy a life of better quality when they contact more with nature.
50. Nowadays, people think things that can be bought are best for children, rather than things that can be found.
51. Dr. William Bird suggests in his study that access to nature contributes to the reduction of violence.52. According to a study in the U. S. Children with ADHD whose accommodation had more natural views showed much better improvement.
53. Children who have chances to explore natural areas are less likely to be involved in bullying.
54. We can find harmony with the natural world in various ways, among which there are walking, sitting, drinking, learning and traveling.
55. It is extremely harmful to think that humanity and the natural world can be separated.
I) 有证据显示，在更加广阔、更困难的地区生活时，自然环境能改善一切事物。甚至在与自然界接触时，和犯罪和攻击行为有关的问题也减少了。英国皇家鸟类保护协会的研究员William Bird博士在他的研究中有这样的陈述：【51】“自然环境能减少暴力行为，因为其恢复过程有助于减少愤怒和冲动。”为此，不管有多大作用，我们都应该多鼓励人们去野外走走。
J) 我们倾向于把自然环境保护看作是人类赏给大自然的一种恩赐。l551但是，从深层次来理解，这种观念是不正确的：不仅人类本身就很需要大自然， 而且这种把人类与自然界割裂矛来的观念是毁灭性的。人类是一种哺乳动物。700万年来，作为大自然的一部分，他们生活在这个星球上。人类天生眷恋着大自然，也渴望与身边的其他种类的生命接触。喜欢逗狗，抚摸小猫，坐树下喝一品脱啤酒，送人花束或接受花束，以及在天气好的时候去公园散步的朋友应该很清楚这一点。我们需要大自然，因为它对我们的快乐、健康和幸福至关重要。没有大自然，我们的文明只能倒退而无法前进。没有其他生物围绕在我们周围，我们也不能被称为人类。
46.The study in Sweden shows that more access to nature makes children less likely to fall ill.瑞典的研究说明更多接触大自然让孩子更可能少生病。
【解析】 D)。细节题。根据句中关键词a study in Sweden定位至D)段首句。瑞典的一项研究显示，在自然环境中玩耍的幼儿园小朋友比在只习惯在正规运动场玩耍的小朋友少患病，身体也更健康。
47.The author’S profound belief is that people instinctively seek nature in different ways.作者深信人们本能地会通过各种方式寻找大自然。
【解析】A)。细节题。根据句中的“the author’s profound belief"可定位至文章A)段末句。作者深信人类不仅需要大自然，而且都在寻觅着大自然。
48.It can be very helpful to provide more green spaces for children with ADHD.给多动症儿童提供更多绿色的生活空间会对他们大有帮助。
【解析】 G)。细节题。根据句中关键词children with ADHD和green spaces可定位至G)段倒数两句。但是，众多研究表明，与自然接触对患有多动症的孩子最有益。虽然如此，我们还是把钱花在了药物上，而非绿色的生活空间上。
49.Elderly people will enjoy a life of beber quality when they contact more with nature.老年人多接触自然可享受优质生活。
【解析】 H)。归纳题。根据句中关键词elderly people可定位至H)段。“如果老年人有接触大自然的机会，他们的生活状况会明显改善不少。随着老年人的增多，我们应该更多地关注他们的生活质量，而不是生命年限。众多研究发现，花园是提高老年人生活质量唯一最重要的因素。”句中是对此段的简要归纳。
50.Nowadays，people think things that can be bought are best for children，rather than things that Can be found.如今，人们觉得可以买到的东西对孩子最好，而不是可以发现的东西。
【解析】B)。细节题。根据句中关键词things that Can be bough found和best for children可定位至B)段末句。还有一些关于什么是对孩子们最好的奇怪新观念，觉得是能买到的东西，而不是可以发现的东西。
51.Dr.William Bird suggests in his study that access to nature contributes to the reduction of violence.William Bird博士在研究中提到接近大自然有助于减少暴力行为。
【解析】 I)。细节题。由句中的Dr.William Bird定位至I)段倒数第二句。他在研究中提出这样的观点：自然环境能减少暴力行为，因为其恢复过程有助于减少愤怒和冲动。
52.According to a study in the U.S.Children with ADHD whose accommodation had more natural views showedmuch beRer improvement.
【解析】 C)。推理题。根据句中关键词a study in the U.S.定位至C)段。该段指出调查发现，住在自然风光视野更开阔的房子里的患儿改善了19%，而那些住在物质条件得到同等改善，但没有美丽的自然风景的房子里的患儿仅改善了4%。由此可以推演出：住在自然风光视野更开阔的房子里的多动症儿童进步幅度更大。
53.Children who have chances to explore natural areas are less likely to be involved in bullying.
【解析】 F)。细节题。根据句中关键词explore natural areas定位至F)段首句。大多数恃强凌弱的现象发生在有柏油碎石运动场的学校，在鼓励孩子探索的自然环境中则很少发生。
54.We can find harmony with the natural world in various ways，among which there are walking，sitting，drinking，learning andtravelin9.与自然和谐相处方式多多，比如：散步、静坐、畅饮、学习和旅行。
【解析】 K)。归纳题。根据句中关键词find harmony with the natural world可定位至K)段末段。该段列举与自然和谐相处的方式，而句中是对整段的概括。
55.It is extremely harmful to think that humanity and the natural world can be separated.
【解析】 J)。细节题。根据句中关键词humanity and the natural和separated定位至J)段第二句。原句为“but the very idea that humanity and the natural world are separable things is profoundly damagin9”(而这种把人类与自然界割裂开来的观念是毁灭性的。)
Once it was possible to define male and female roles easily by the division of labor. Men worked outside the home and earned the income to support their families， while women cooked the meals and took care of the home and the children. These roles were firmly fixed for most people， and there was not much opportunity for women to exchange their roles. But by the middle of this century， men‘s and women’s roles were becoming less firmly fixed.
In the 1950s， economic and social success was the goal of the typical American. But in the 1960s a new force developed called the counterculture. The people involved in this movement did not value the middle-class American goals. The counterculture presented men and women with new role choices. Taking more interest in childcare， men began to share child-raising tasks with their wives. In fact， some young men and women moved to communal homes or farms where the economic and childcare responsibilities were shared equally by both sexes. In addition， many Americans did not value the traditional male role of soldier. Some young men refused to be drafted as soldiers to fight in the war in Vietnam.
In terms of numbers， the counterculture was not a very large group of people. But its influence spread to many parts of American society. Working men of all classes began to change their economic and social patterns. Industrial workers and business executives alike cut down on “overtime” work so that they could spend more leisure time with their families. Some doctors， lawyers， and teachers turned away from high paying situations to practice their professions in poorer neighborhoods.
In the 1970s， the feminist movement， or women‘s liberation， produced additional economic and social changes. Women of all ages and at all levels of society were entering the work force in greater numbers. Most of them still took traditional women’s jobs as public school teaching， nursing， and secretarial work. But some women began to enter traditionally male occupations： police work， banking， dentistry， and construction work. Women were asking for equal work， and equal opportunities for promotion.
Today the experts generally agree that important changes are taking place in the roles of men and women. Naturally， there are difficulties in adjusting to these transformations.
1.Which of the following best express the main idea of Paragraph 1?
A.Women usually worked outside the home for wages.
B.Men and women‘s roles were easily exchanged in the past.
C.Men’s roles at home were more firmly fixed than women‘s.
D.Men and women’s roles were usually quite separated in the past.
2.Which sentence best expresses the main idea of Paragraph 2?
A.The first sentence.
B.The second and the third sentences.
C.The fourth sentence.
D.The last sentence.
3.In the passage the author proposes that the counterculture___.
A.destroyed the United States.
B.transformed some American values.
C.was not important in the United States.
D.brought people more leisure time with their families.
4.It could be inferred from the passage that___.
A.men and women will never share the same goals.
B.some men will be willing to exchange their traditional male roles.
C.most men will be happy to share some of the household responsibilities with their wives.
D.more American households are headed by women than ever before.
5.The best title for the passage may be ___.
A.Results of Feminist Movements
B.New influence in American Life
C.Counterculture and Its consequence
D.Traditional Division of Male and Female Roles.